churning- The illegal and criminal act of excessive buying and selling of shares of stock by a stockbroker for the purpose of obtaining more commissions. The act has both civil and criminal consequences. The rules governing illegal stock churning are governed by the blue sky laws of the states and by the Securities and Exchange Commission of the United States government.
confidence game- The procurement of money by trick or deceit. This type of crime is usually perpetrated on the elderly.
embezzlement- A white-collar crime where an employee misappropriates money or property rightfully belonging to the employer. This crime is considered a larceny.
false pretenses- A crime of larceny where the perpetrator knowingly makes material untrue statements for the purpose of obtaining money or property fraudulently.
fraud- The act of obtaining money or property by deceit, tricks or dishonest acts. Most acts of fraud are felonies. Criminal fraud is commonly perpetrated against the aged and infirm.
insider trading- The unlawful stock trading by a company insider such as a high-level employee who possesses confidential and nonpublic information about his company and thereafter trades stock to gain unfair advantage. The Securities and Exchange Commission enforces insider trading laws to protect the unsuspecting investing public.
judgment creditor- A creditor who has successfully sued the debtor and has obtained a court judgment against the debtor.
tax evasion- The intentional defrauding of the government of taxes legally owed. Evasion is distinguished from the lawful interpretation of tax rules which can be challenged by either the government or the taxpayer.
extortion- The obtaining of money or property by threat of harm to another. Blackmail is a form of extortion in which the threat is to expose embarrassing and/or damaging information to another person or governmental agency.
complaint- The document filed by the creditor in court that begins a lawsuit against the debtor. The complaint contains the creditor's factual allegations about the loan transaction.
deficiency judgment- A court judgment entitling the creditor to collect the balance of the secured debt remaining after sale of the collateral.
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